William Lee invented the knitting machine in 1589 and played a seminal role in kicking off the industrial revolution to come.
Small things were made big in Zacharias Janssen's 1590 invention of the compound microscope.
Galileo invented the water thermometer in 1593. Small glass containers of different densities are suspended in water inside a larger glass cylinder. As temperatures rise and fall, so do the different containers.
Cornelis Drebbel invented the first practical submarine in 1620. It was human-powered and had a wooden frame covered in leather.
Hans Lippershey, a German spectacle maker, patented the refracting telescope in 1608.
They didn't exist quite yet, but shortly after the first Thanksgiving a number of other technologies helped jumpstart development of math and science.
Though it didn't show up until 1624, William Oughtred's invention of the slide rule (his was circular) had people using a true analog mechanical computer to do math.
In 1625, the latest and greatest invention was the blood transfusion. The earliest were called "xenotransfusions" since they used blood from other species of animals.
French mathematician Blaise Pascal invented the adding machine, a mechanical calculator, in 1642.
A major breakthrough in 1670: Dom Perignon invents champagne!
Technology's obviously come a long way since then.