The coronavirus can damage the heart, even in people with no history of heart disease, new research suggests - showing it doesn't only affect the lungs

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While the most severe cases of the new coronavirus typically involve respiratory failure, COVID-19 doesn't always solely impact a patient's lungs. The virus sometimes causes infection and swelling in the heart and surrounding muscles, which can be fatal.

New research published Friday in the journal JAMA Cardiology concluded that the COVID-19 virus, much like other respiratory viruses, can impact a patient's cardiac system. The study found that even healthy people who contract COVID-19 are at risk of heart injury. Advertisement

"It is likely that even in the absence of previous heart disease, the heart muscle can be affected by coronavirus disease," Dr. Mohammad Madjid, the study's lead author and an assistant professor of cardiology at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, said in a press release.

"Overall, injury to heart muscle can happen in any patient with or without heart disease, but the risk is higher in those who already have heart disease," he added.

The link between COVID-19 and cardiac problems

After reviewing an array of existing studies about COVID-19, Madjid and his colleagues affirmed that patients with preexisting heart disease are among those at the greatest risk for developing severe cases of COVID-19.
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The scientists concluded that those patients' risks are two-fold: not only do they seem more likely to get infected due to their underlying heart disease, but they are also more likely die from the illness, in part because they develop further heart injuries during infection.

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The case fatality, or death rate, for COVID-19 patients with heart disease in mainland China was 10.5% between December 30 and February 11, according to research from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.Advertisement

According to another new study in JAMA Cardiology (which echoed Madjid's group's conclusions), that's because patients with underlying heart disease are more prone to experience myocardial, or heart, injury during the course of their COVID-19 infections. These myocardial injuries include an irregular heartbeat or heart failure.

The study, which examined 187 COVID-19 patients at a hospital in Wuhan, China, revealed that 28% of patients developed a myocardial injury, which was significantly associated with a higher risk of death. About 70% of patients that had both underlying heart disease and developed a heart injury from the virus died.

According to Madjid and his co-authors, COVID-19, as well as other respiratory viruses like the flu and SARS, can exacerbate existing cardiovascular disease and trigger new heart problems in healthy patients.Advertisement

During most flu epidemics, more patients die of heart problems than respiratory issues like pneumonia, they wrote, adding that they expect similar cardiac issues among severe COVID-19 cases.

One woman with COVID-19 had a heart infection but no respiratory issues

A third study also published Friday in JAMA Cardiology describes the case of a 53-year-old healthy woman without any history of cardiovascular disease or underlying health conditions. She came to the emergency room complaining of severe fatigue in March.

The patient told doctors that she'd had a fever and dry cough the week before, but she had no difficulty breathing and her chest x-rays were clear. The lining of her heart, however, was inflamed and infected, and she was admitted to the cardiac care unit for treatment.Advertisement

Later, because of her prior symptoms, she was given a coronavirus test. It came back positive.

Heart Disease

The study authors wrote that this woman's case "provides evidence of cardiac involvement as a possible late phenomenon of the viral respiratory infection." Advertisement

The researchers offered two possible explanations about how the COVID-19 virus might impact the heart. The first is that the virus could spread from the lungs through the body via blood or the lympathic system. They added, however, that no incidences of the coronavirus in the heart had been reported yet.

Alternatively, the coronavirus could trigger inflammation in the body, which may cause heart injury. Digital Health Pro

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