One year of military service is required for Russian men between the ages of 18 and 27. The country allows for some exceptions — sons or brothers of men killed during their military service are released from conscription, for example. Even with these exceptions, Russians have been evading the draft at alarming rates, and the government has considered forcing men to report even if they have not been selected.Military service is mandatory for Swiss men. As recently as 2017, Switzerland was considering adding women to its draft roles.Israeli men must serve in the defense force for three years. Women are conscripted for two years. Transgender Israelis have been allowed to serve since 1993.Norway was the first NATO country to expand conscription to include women. It was also one of the first countries in the world to allow transgender people to serve, changing its policy in 1973. The country's conscription is selective; everyone has to register but won't necessarily be called to serve.Although China does mandate military service, it has routinely exceeded recruitment goals and has not needed to force conscription.Conscription is mandatory for Iranian men, who must serve from 18 months to two years.North Korea has the longest conscription period in the world. Men are required to serve for 10 years, starting at age 17. Women must serve for seven years. Egyptian men must serve for a period of one to three years, depending on their level of education.In Austria, men can choose between six months of military service and nine months of civil service. Austria has allowed transgender troops to serve since 2004.Taiwan pledged in 2011 to end conscription. The country is moving closer towards its goal of an all-volunteer force, but is facing hurdles as younger generations are choosing not to serve.