Ruby is a dynamic, open source programming language that focuses on simplicity. It’s been used to build some of the apps we use each day. Ruby on Rails, a popular web-application framework, is implemented in Ruby. In fact, apps like Twitch, SoundCloud, Hulu, Zendesk, Square and GitHub were built with Ruby on Rails.
C is an old one, but a good one. One of the oldest programming languages, it was invented in the 1970s. Even today, it has become one of the most widely used programming languages of all time.
A shell script is a computer program that’s designed to instruct an operating system to run certain commands. Shell scripts can manipulate files, execute programs and more. It's especially popular with systems administrators.
C#, pronounced C Sharp, was developed by Microsoft and used to build enterprise applications and software used by corporate clients. This object-oriented programming language is similar to Java.
C++ dates back to the 1970s and is commonly taught in beginner computer science courses. It’s still one of the most widely used languages, as it’s the core language in many operating systems, browsers, and games.
PHP is used to make dynamic and interactive Web pages. Large sites like Facebook and Yahoo were made using PHP, but developers have long ridiculed it one of the worst programming languages: It's been called "training wheels without the bike."
Python is a high-level programming language and one of the world’s fastest-growing languages. It’s an easy language to get started with, but it's often used for higher-level programming like machine learning and data analysis. One of the most popular tutorials for Python is called “Learn Python the Hard Way.”
“Python is a legit phenomenon of it’s own,” O’Grady said. “A lot of it comes down to the fact that it’s an incredibly versatile language.”
Java is an object-oriented language created by Sun Microsystems, which is now owned by Oracle. It’s used for databases, developing Android apps, as a “backend” programming language for the web, desktop applications and more. It's immensely popular, considered one of the most stable and reliable ways to build large systems.