Even if every country does their individual goals, the temperature will still likely rise more than 2 degrees. The UN Environment Programme suggests that in order to stay below 2 degrees, global greenhouse gas emissions have to be cut from 54 billion tons per year (where we are now) to about 42 billion tons by the year 2030. The current Paris Agreement pledges, however, are only anticipated to keep those emissions flat over the next 14 years. That’s better than the amount emissions would have increased without the agreement, but not quite enough.
A study released in September suggested that even if every country does reach the goal of its nationally determined contribution, the 2-degree rise could still happen by 2050. Robert Watson, a British-American atmospheric scientist, told Reuters that if governments really intent to stay below a 2-degree rise, they should really double or triple the pledges they made in the Paris Agreement.
And James Hansen, a climate scientist at Columbia University, recently published a paper suggesting that limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius would require negative emissions, which would mean capturing carbon and taking it out of the atmosphere. If emissions are scaled down quickly, the study says, we could achieve that by making improvements to agricultural and forestry practices. Otherwise, the study suggests, we’d have to develop new technologies that could capture and store CO2.